1) a reproductive guild (q.v.) of an obligatory plant spawner characterised by an adhesive egg envelope sticking to submerged plants (both live and dead), by late hatching, cement glands, by not being phototactic, and by having very well developed embryonic respiratory structures, e.g. Cyprinus carpio
2) a reproductive guild (q.v.) of adhesive eggs attaching to aquatic plants but tended by the adult. Extended embryonic period, free embryos without cement glands swim instantly, e.g. Pomoxis annularis (Centrarchidae)
3) a reproductive guild (q.v.) of adhesive eggs attaching to plants in a nest with the embryos hanging onto the plants by cement glands. Embryos have well-developed respiratory structures but are also fanned by the parents, e.g. Amia calva

Dictionary of ichthyology. 2009.

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  • reproductive guild — a group of unrelated fishes with a similar form of reproduction, e.g. on substrates such as rocks and gravel (lithophil), in open water (pelagophil), on plants both living and dead (phytophil), on sand (psammophil), in holes and crevices… …   Dictionary of ichthyology

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